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Re: I'm 5'8, waist size 32, weight 181-- decadent or shrewd?LAPD officer on paid administrative leave  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateCisbigot  05/21/18
Re: LOL@ Mitsubishi's car lineupstephen biko  05/21/18
Re: Prince Philip sees Serena at wedding: "Why's that black man wearing a dress?"stephen biko  05/21/18
Re: LOL@ Mitsubishi's car lineupFrom a Bloomington Bathhouse on the Hill  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateThunder Collins  05/21/18
Re: Heres the thingstephen biko  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateCisbigot  05/21/18
Re: Surgeon caught dancing and singing while operating...guess raceant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/21/18
Re: By mid-30s everyone knows someone with cancerstephen biko  05/21/18
Re: Have 9 hour layover in Doha, any ideas?TRUMP TEAM SIX  05/21/18
Re: "I am out of office engaged in transgressive, hyper-textual writing projectscharlie brown  05/21/18
Re: Lulzy how brown libs are convincing whites to disarm themselves.Jogurt  05/21/18
Re: Why are American police over-the-top aggressive?gaggle of IvyLeaguers from a Aaron Sorkin script  05/21/18
Re: Have 9 hour layover in Doha, any ideas?US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked  05/21/18
Re: do you guys feel anger often?From a Bloomington Bathhouse on the Hill  05/21/18
Re: Physics 171 - The Time Cube Theory of Bboooom (4 units)charlie brown  05/21/18
Re: Surgeon caught dancing and singing while operating...guess racejonnyBlaze  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"The Buzz Aldrin Spacelaw Fellowship  05/21/18
Re: Have 9 hour layover in Doha, any ideas?TRUMP TEAM SIX  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no moneycharlie brown  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no moneyitemizable chaturbate donations  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateCisbigot  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no moneycharlie brown  05/21/18
Re: Californian Woman Gives Birth to Baby on San Francisco Street (video)US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked  05/21/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar orcharlie brown  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no moneyUS Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked  05/21/18
Re: Californian Woman Gives Birth to Baby on San Francisco Street (video)Maori woman performing defiant haka  05/21/18
Re: Have 9 hour layover in Doha, any ideas?US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked  05/21/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar orborders  05/21/18
Re: Heres the thingcharlie brown  05/21/18
Re: Heres the thingAlternate Pooniverse  05/21/18
Re: Prince Philip sees Serena at wedding: "Why's that black man wearing a dress?"charlie brown  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"charlie brown  05/21/18
Re: Any of you bros play Stardew Valley?TRUMPdog Billionaire  05/21/18
Re: Donald J Trump is done hereAlternate Pooniverse  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no money\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no money.........,,;,;,;,,,............,,;,;;,.;.  05/21/18
Re: Have 9 hour layover in Doha, any ideas?charlie brown  05/21/18
Re: Rate this Pumos explanation why 9/11 "doesn't count" in comparing muslim/white vDuncan donuts  05/21/18
Re: humans should be banned from forming groups.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: RATE This Jewess Shrew At A Fine WINERY (PIC).........,,;,;,;,,,............,,;,;;,.;.  05/21/18
Re: balding 36 year old typing "hehe"Jogurt  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington State.........,,;,;,;,,,............,,;,;;,.;.  05/21/18
Re: Prince Philip sees Serena at wedding: "Why's that black man wearing a dress?"\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\"\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar orborders  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no moneyDASS JIM CROW  05/21/18
Re: RATE This Jewess Shrew At A Fine WINERY (PIC)US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no money.,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee".,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no money,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,,.,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/21/18
Re: Did a Google news search for Jordan Peterson. Here are the article titlesDr. Cool  05/21/18
Re: ok i admit it - in a diminutive asian twink pretending to be a chill white brobowlcut autist  05/21/18
Re: LOL@ Mitsubishi's car lineupextremely online guy  05/21/18
Re: what became of the biggest incel melvin at your HS?Jim_Kelly  05/21/18
Re: Have 9 hour layover in Doha, any ideas?TRUMP TEAM SIX  05/21/18
Re: Mario Batali going to be the next big figure to go down on sex assault stories,..,.,..,\",..,.,..,\".,.,..,,\'  05/21/18
Re: Did you know anyone pre-college that killedselfFrom a Bloomington Bathhouse on the Hill  05/21/18
Re: get all your boomer pilots to fly this plane.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: LOL@ Mitsubishi's car lineupBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/21/18
Re: I'm just burnin' doing the Racist Rant <Pointer Sisters singing>,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Californian Woman Gives Birth to Baby on San Francisco Street (video)prince never spins  05/21/18
Re: Have 9 hour layover in Doha, any ideas?US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateRisten  05/21/18
Re: LOL@ Mitsubishi's car lineuphttp://i.imgur.com/GzDww8M.jpg  05/21/18
Re: so boomers essentially built bridges for future generations, charged a toll on.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: really disappointed in this place lately,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Mario Batali going to be the next big figure to go down on sex assault storiesUS Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked  05/21/18
Re: really disappointed in this place latelyCohen the Galleria of Benefits  05/21/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar orBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/21/18
Re: Have 9 hour layover in Doha, any ideas?TRUMP TEAM SIX  05/21/18
Re: Everyone on the internet knows who JJC is. How does he still get jobs?\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\"\'  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateJim_Kelly  05/21/18
Re: Rate Neil Young's old house in Topanga Canyon (1.8M)\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateRisten  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateDai, non fa niente  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateTRUMP TEAM SIX  05/21/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar or,..,......,...,......,.....,...,....  05/21/18
Re: balding 36 year old typing "hehe"Cohen the Galleria of Benefits  05/21/18
Re: Californian Woman Gives Birth to Baby on San Francisco Street (video)ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/21/18
Re: Does anybody know any successful Trumptards IRL?Cohen the Galleria of Benefits  05/21/18
Re: Californian Woman Gives Birth to Baby on San Francisco Street (video)problematic moniker  05/21/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar orDai, non fa niente  05/21/18
Re: Rate Neil Young's old house in Topanga Canyon (1.8M)Buck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington State..............;...................  05/21/18
Re: so boomers essentially built bridges for future generations, charged a toll on\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: so boomers essentially built bridges for future generations, charged a toll onCharlesXII  05/21/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar orDai, non fa niente  05/21/18
Re: so boomers essentially built bridges for future generations, charged a toll on.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: so boomers essentially built bridges for future generations, charged a toll on\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Prince Philip sees Serena at wedding: "Why's that black man wearing a dress?"ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/21/18
Re: so boomers essentially built bridges for future generations, charged a toll on,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,..,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/21/18
Re: ok i admit it - in a diminutive asian twink pretending to be a chill white bro\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: do you guys feel anger often?prince never spins  05/21/18
Re: Californian Woman Gives Birth to Baby on San Francisco Street (video)Ed Hendrick  05/21/18
Re: Prince Philip sees Serena at wedding: "Why's that black man wearing a dress?"US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked  05/21/18
Re: ok i admit it - in a diminutive asian twink pretending to be a chill white broproblematic moniker  05/21/18
Re: I was killed seventeen years ago in a head-on crash in southern Utahant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/21/18
Re: What meaningless hobby brings you joy but no moneyThe Intersectionality of J. Cole\'s new album  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"The Intersectionality of J. Cole\'s new album  05/21/18
Re: I was killed seventeen years ago in a head-on crash in southern Utahant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/21/18
Re: I was killed seventeen years ago in a head-on crash in southern UtahPoasting in a Truly Histrionic Thread  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington Statedon\'t run ihatecrime1@gmail.com mueller sees you  05/21/18
Re: do you guys feel anger often?ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/21/18
Re: Did you know anyone pre-college that killedselfFrom a Bloomington Bathhouse on the Hill  05/21/18
Re: literally nobody gives a shit about America.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: And boy are we fucked folks! Believe me!.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: do you guys feel anger often?,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Hilldawg brings RUSSIAN hat to Yale Class Daytypical lib pundit  05/21/18
Re: Does anybody know any successful Trumptards IRL?\'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'  05/21/18
Re: Is Honda HRV cr\'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'  05/21/18
Re: Is Honda HRV cr\'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'  05/21/18
Re: do you guys feel anger often?prince never spins  05/21/18
Re: Protip: go to airport, enable mobile hotspot on phone, set SSID to Allahu Akbartypical lib pundit  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar orBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/21/18
Re: gf must know when I cheat on her by how happy i am to her aftergadotphile  05/21/18
Re: How would Hitchens have reacted to Trump generally and the Russia stuff?,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Is Honda HRV crBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/21/18
Re: NYUUG: it takes me 5-10 minutes to ruin your threads forever\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"  05/21/18
Re: Rate king tut's sandalshttp://i.imgur.com/GzDww8M.jpg  05/21/18
Re: Side biz idea: raise quails and sell quail eggs\'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'  05/21/18
Re: Need advice on flightsnyuug  05/21/18
Re: isnt life grandprince never spins  05/21/18
Re: so boomers essentially built bridges for future generations, charged a toll on.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: NYUUG: it takes me 5-10 minutes to ruin your threads forevernyuug  05/21/18
Re: Need advice on flightsBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/21/18
Re: Can you do open hotspot on your phone, give free internet and monitor people's shttp://i.imgur.com/GzDww8M.jpg  05/21/18
Re: How would Hitchens have reacted to Trump generally and the Russia stuff?gadotphile  05/21/18
Re: Is Honda HRV cr\'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'  05/21/18
Re: NYUUG: it takes me 5-10 minutes to ruin your threads forever\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Protip: go to airport, enable mobile hotspot on phone, set SSID to Allahu Akbarhttp://i.imgur.com/GzDww8M.jpg  05/21/18
Re: do you guys feel anger often?,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Look to your left. Now look to your left. All three of you are faggots.,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: do you guys feel anger often?prince never spins  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"  05/21/18
Re: What became of the biggest chad at your HS?,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,,.,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/21/18
Re: By mid-30s everyone knows someone with cancer,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,  05/21/18
Re: gf must know when I cheat on her by how happy i am to her after.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Is XO more impressed by a charismatic articulate Rhodes Scholar or,..,......,...,......,.....,...,....  05/21/18
Re: Learned a lot about S. Korean conscription laws tonightnyuug  05/21/18
Re: what became of the biggest incel melvin at your HS?Topher Mercer  05/21/18
Re: Hilldawg brings RUSSIAN hat to Yale Class Daycannon  05/21/18
Re: By mid-30s everyone knows someone with cancer.........,,.,.,.,.,,,,,,.,.,.,.,.,.  05/21/18
Re: How would Hitchens have reacted to Trump generally and the Russia stuff?Fat Plodding Law Beaver  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"  05/21/18
Re: Obama should use intelligence to nail Trump for something,..,.,..,\",..,.,..,\".,.,..,,\'  05/21/18
Re: Obama should use intelligence to nail Trump for somethingDuncan donuts  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Things that are both prestigious and prole,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: what became of the biggest incel melvin at your HS?Risten  05/21/18
Re: really starting to despise happy and optimistic folk irlgadotphile  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: isnt life grand.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Need advice on flights,..,......,...,......,.....,...,....  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Obama should use intelligence to nail Trump for somethinggibberish  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Did you know anyone pre-college that killedselfant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/21/18
Re: what became of the biggest incel melvin at your HS?,..,...,,,.,.;.,.,..,,.,.,.;.,..,.,.,;,.,.:,.,.,.,  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Travel shrew gets got by elephant (video)\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\"\'\"  05/21/18
Re: NYUUG: stay out of threads by real human beings or I will ruin all your threads\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: really starting to despise happy and optimistic folk irl.......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,  05/21/18
Re: Did you know anyone pre-college that killedselfbowlcut autist  05/21/18
Re: what became of the biggest incel melvin at your HS?ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits  05/21/18
Re: What became of the biggest chad at your HS?David Fleischman at Ortho Mattress  05/21/18
Re: I feel like no one will be granted forgiveness from PSLFThe Intersectionality of J. Cole\'s new album  05/21/18
Re: People getting married tells me one doesn't trust the other.gadotphile  05/21/18
Re: Travel shrew gets got by elephant (video)typical lib pundit  05/21/18
Re: XO ruined the word "bulgogi" for mebowlcut autist  05/21/18
Re: What became of the biggest chad at your HS?CharlesXII  05/21/18
Re: Any of you bros play Stardew Valley?David Fleischman at Ortho Mattress  05/21/18
Re: XO ruined the word "bulgogi" for me\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Learned a lot about S. Korean conscription laws tonight\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: what became of the biggest incel melvin at your HS?da stugots  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington State,..,.,..,\",..,.,..,\".,.,..,,\'  05/21/18
Re: What became of the biggest chad at your HS?,..,...,,,.,.;.,.,..,,.,.,.;.,..,.,.,;,.,.:,.,.,.,  05/21/18
Re: People getting married tells me one doesn't trust the other.,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,,.,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"extremely online guy  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Learned a lot about S. Korean conscription laws tonightgadotphile  05/21/18
Re: What became of the biggest chad at your HS?,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,,.,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"David Fleischman at Ortho Mattress  05/21/18
Re: Obama should use intelligence to nail Trump for somethingBuck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington Statejoseph christ  05/21/18
Re: What became of the biggest chad at your HS?CharlesXII  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"Buck \"The Club\" Paulette  05/21/18
Re: I was killed seventeen years ago in a head-on crash in southern Utah,.,.,.,..,.,..,:,,:,,.,::,..,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington Statejoseph christ  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"  05/21/18
Re: XO ruined the word "bulgogi" for megadotphile  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington State:D  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"nyuug  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: People getting married tells me one doesn't trust the other.gadotphile  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington State,..,.,..,\",..,.,..,\".,.,..,,\'  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: What became of the biggest chad at your HS?Jim_Kelly  05/21/18
Re: What became of the biggest chad at your HS?dirte  05/21/18
Re: XO ruined the word "bulgogi" for meKapo  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: XO ruined the word "bulgogi" for menyuug  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"extremely online guy  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: think i'm done with westworld after this ninja episodejoseph christ  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: What became of the biggest chad at your HS?,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,,.,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: balding 36 year old typing "hehe",.,.,.,..,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,.  05/21/18
Re: XO ruined the word "bulgogi" for meRisten  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: The Texas high school shooter was another MAF incelnyuug  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Obama should use intelligence to nail Trump for somethingKapo  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Obama should use intelligence to nail Trump for somethingjoseph christ  05/21/18
Re: Did a Google news search for Jordan Peterson. Here are the article titles:D  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington Statenyuug  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: xo Mountain Lion Kills Female Cyclist in Washington StateKapo  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"nyuug  05/21/18
Re: People getting married tells me one doesn't trust the other.,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,,.,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.  05/21/18
Re: Just gonna leave this here, DBG:\'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"  05/21/18
Re: Did a Google news search for Jordan Peterson. Here are the article titles,.,.,.,..,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,.  05/21/18
Re: Med school in US: $278,455. Med school in Germany: "A symbolic fee"Nigel has more dates than I do  05/21/18

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:22 AM
Author: LAPD officer on paid administrative leave



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:21 AM
Author: Cisbigot

Lawsuit should be filed any moment as the dead fag was misgendred by at least one news outlet

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:20 AM
Author: stephen biko

it was all downhill after they ditched the 3000GT

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:19 AM
Author: stephen biko

GHASTLY

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:19 AM
Author: From a Bloomington Bathhouse on the Hill(height bort first poaster)


It's kinda shocking that they didn't exit the US market like Suzuki did. But it seems as though they are giving it one last-ditch effort with a crossover-heavy lineup.

It's kind of hilarious, because they are actually taking established nameplates that they used to have on *cars* like Eclipse and Lancer and slapping those names on crossovers

https://jalopnik.com/mitsubishi-wants-to-ruin-the-good-lancer-name-next-with-1825481584

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:19 AM
Author: Thunder Collins

LMAO. These fags were easy targets.

https://www.google.com/amp/www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5751831/amp/PICTURED-32-year-old-biker-killed-starving-cougar.html

According to the Seattle Bike Blog, Brooks (pictured) was an avid biker, who co-founded Friends on Bikes Seattle to create a bike community where women/trans/femme/non-binary people of color could come together and have fun on bike

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:19 AM
Author: stephen biko



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:18 AM
Author: Cisbigot

It’s of indeterminate sex. I just looked up a pic

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:17 AM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

the product of AA all her life
libs?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:16 AM
Author: stephen biko

** BEEP BEEP BEEP **

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:15 AM
Author: TRUMP TEAM SIX

yes. it was solid. saw the Louvre there, the grand mosque, and went down to the "Beach" area for chill and eat, then back to the airport. taxis were chill and easy to get so it was no problem.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:15 AM
Author: charlie brown(@realcharliebrown)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:14 AM
Author: Jogurt

Enslaving whites is going to be pretty easy.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:14 AM
Author: gaggle of IvyLeaguers from a Aaron Sorkin script

for one thing, 90% of cops shouldn't be allowed to carry guns

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:12 AM
Author: US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked(*)


did u enjoy auh? i just decided to stay in the lounge on a 12 hr layover

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:12 AM
Author: From a Bloomington Bathhouse on the Hill(height bort first poaster)


I get road rage a tad too often

Also I had this one incident in my life where I was falsely accused of a felony. I ended up being the target of a grand jury investigation. I was never charged. The whole thing was by far the most infuriating thing I've ever dealt with in my life. Whenever I think about it, I can feel my blood pressure spike like crazy.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:12 AM
Author: charlie brown(@realcharliebrown)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:12 AM
Author: jonnyBlaze

https://www.wsbtv.com/news/2-investigates/doctor-who-made-music-videos-in-operating-room-facing-several-malpractice-suits/751266828

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:12 AM
Author: The Buzz Aldrin Spacelaw Fellowship

Dean of inclusion is a different position now. Mo money fo dem programs.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:11 AM
Author: TRUMP TEAM SIX

ya. its not ideal, but not sure what else to do there. basically i can "See" things but not really enjoy them. or i can take a taxi and just do it myself like i did in abu dhabi last month

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:09 AM
Author: charlie brown(@realcharliebrown)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:09 AM
Author: itemizable chaturbate donations(aide de camp)


making beats

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:09 AM
Author: Cisbigot

Tranny? News site says SJ was a guy

Edit: NY Times has it listed as a man, SJ Brooks but Seattle need had it listed as Sonja J Brooks.
Cougar was probably just confused

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:09 AM
Author: charlie brown(@realcharliebrown)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:08 AM
Author: US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked(*)


makes sense to avoid 100k in hospital fees. what a (((scam))). humans shit out kids in the street for thousands of years before they paid 100k to a hospital.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:08 AM
Author: charlie brown(@realcharliebrown)


no way someone like this even gets shortlisted 20 years ago

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:08 AM
Author: US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked(*)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:07 AM
Author: Maori woman performing defiant haka

welcome to our now third world country, where welfare babies are literally being shat out on the streets

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:07 AM
Author: US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked(*)


maybe it just takes you to the building. here are the hours:

http://www.mia.org.qa/en/visiting/opening-times

youre not gonna see much art in a 2.5 hr tour w 4 stops.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:07 AM
Author: borders

Depends what we mean by "impressed" - because the IMO people will hold top jobs in academia, places like NASA / los alamos / NSA, hedge funds / tech etc.

Meanwhile if you look at this year's Rhodes students it's like 75% bullshit like race criticism or media studies.

Sure there will be some charismatic bros who go on to hold great leadership positions - that may be more enviable, but not more impressive IMO. The kind of computing power the IMO kids have is far more impressive to me, but their lives may not be more enviable.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:07 AM
Author: charlie brown(@realcharliebrown)


absolutely devastating

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:06 AM
Author: Alternate Pooniverse

NIGGER

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:06 AM
Author: charlie brown(@realcharliebrown)


she’d hurt him

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:05 AM
Author: charlie brown(@realcharliebrown)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:05 AM
Author: TRUMPdog Billionaire(Dr. Thunder 0xE4D4d5d2357f9070e710FaCB96745Df340b63a77)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:04 AM
Author: Alternate Pooniverse

JK NIGGER

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:04 AM
Author: \'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'

Cooking

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:04 AM
Author: .........,,;,;,;,,,............,,;,;;,.;.

playing guitar

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:04 AM
Author: charlie brown(@realcharliebrown)


There is nothing else to see there so you may as well do this tour. You can see the outside of a couple of huge modern mosques but so what. The drive along the bay is nice enough for 5 minutes but then you’re done. It’s a weird, unpleasant feeling place.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:04 AM
Author: Duncan donuts



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:04 AM
Author: .......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,

no organization, entity etc should go past 150 people or whatever our brains can process

anythign past this should be disbanded, regulated and taxed heavily

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:04 AM
Author: .........,,;,;,;,,,............,,;,;;,.;.

she's so interesting and sophisticated

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:04 AM
Author: Jogurt



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:03 AM
Author: .........,,;,;,;,,,............,,;,;;,.;.

is it fucked up that i really want to see pic of the victim to determine if she was hot or not?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:03 AM
Author: \'\'\'\'\'\'\'\"\'\"

Look at the shape of her skull

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:02 AM
Author: borders

No not flame at all - this is an example of a Rhodes Scholar winner from this year:

Thamara V. Jean, Brooklyn, is a senior at the Macaulay Honors College at Hunter College of
the City University of New York, where she is Hunter’s first Rhodes Scholar. She majors in
Political Science and Media Analysis and Criticism. She completed her senior thesis in her
junior year on the Black Lives Matter movement which was subsequently published in The
Journal of Politics and Society. She followed this with research in the Harvard African-American
Studies Department on black nationalism in the 1960s. Thamara is especially interested in the
dialectic between Afro-pessimism and Black optimism and how that shapes African-American
political thought. Her interest as a social activist is to change destructive societal narratives
and philosophical traditions that bring about barriers rather than common understanding.

Depends on what you mean by "respect" - but in terms of intellect the latter is far more respectful than majoring in PoliSci and Media analysis and criticism. Obviously IMO winners will be more socially awkward on average - but I know several people like this and they aren't as bad as XO thinks. There are far more career opportunities open to the IMO winner - and undoubtedly a good number of the IMO people could do what the Rhodes students do, but basically zero or only on very rare occasions could the rhodes students do what the IMO ppl do - and I'm not even talking about the IMO challenge I mean even keep up with the kind of coursework the IMO students take in college.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:01 AM
Author: DASS JIM CROW

ZPoasting is more of a job that brings me no money

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:00 AM
Author: US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked(*)


https://i.imgur.com/YVmo8Vd.png

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 1:00 AM
Author: .,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.

here ill say it for everybody else: poasting

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:58 AM
Author: .,.,.,,,.,,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:58 AM
Author: ,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,,.,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

Banging escorts.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:58 AM
Author: Dr. Cool



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:55 AM
Author: bowlcut autist



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:54 AM
Author: extremely online guy

wasn't even sure they still made cars

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:54 AM
Author: Jim_Kelly

Went to a good UG but dropped out. Finished college at a local TTT with 100% acceptance rate and then went to a FTT law school around 10 years ago. Appears to have dropped off the face of the earth -- I can't find him in bar directories or LinkedIn, and he doesn't have a profile in our HS alumni database.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:54 AM
Author: TRUMP TEAM SIX

The tour includes: Katara, The Pearl, Museum of Islamic Art and Souq Waqif


So I assume it will be open for the tour

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:52 AM
Author: ,..,.,..,\",..,.,..,\".,.,..,,\'

wait, which one?

https://simplysocialblog.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/balotelli_bertolli.jpg?w=1200&h=600

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:52 AM
Author: From a Bloomington Bathhouse on the Hill(height bort first poaster)


I was in college when a guy I had babysat for shot himself with his cop dad's service weapon when he was a freshman in high school.

It threw his dad's career for a curve. He quit being a cop. I suspect he couldn't handle carrying a gun anymore.

Luckily he landed a gig doing (unarmed) campus security at a private Catholic college. To me that was one of the most shining examples of a religious community coming together to support each other. They were a Catholic family; I suspect the college didn't have a pressing need for someone like him, but they created a job for him to support him through an exceptionally trying time

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:51 AM
Author: .......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitsubishi_MU-2

336+ deaths in 36 years

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:50 AM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette

Some solid ratings

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:50 AM
Author: ,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:49 AM
Author: prince never spins



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:49 AM
Author: US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked(*)


havent been, but the islamic art museum is supposed to be the only thing worth seeing. check out the opening hours -- they're weird.


or take all the baklava from the lounge


(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:49 AM
Author: Risten

Not cr, article said 100 lbs cougar. "Isaac" was undoubtedly a 130 lbs granola vegan mega-soy wiry twink with no muscle mass. I've got 90 lbs on that cougar and have read a lot of xo threads about D3 college wrestlers/navy seals taking on various beasts so I'd fuck that cougar's ass

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:49 AM
Author: http://i.imgur.com/GzDww8M.jpg

https://www.caranddriver.com/mitsubishi

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:49 AM
Author: .......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,

slices wrists with PAYE form

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:48 AM
Author: ,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,

wtf is this? it's objectively better than ever.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:47 AM
Author: US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked(*)


http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5751491/Celebrity-chef-Mario-Batali-accused-sexual-assault-report.html

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:46 AM
Author: Cohen the Galleria of Benefits



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:46 AM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette

Only a very small number of people have the ability to ever achieve an IMO gold no matter what.

Any smart, savvy college student (especially a URM) has a reasonable chance at striving their way to a Rhodes if they put their mind to it.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:46 AM
Author: TRUMP TEAM SIX

I might just book one of these tours or do it myself. Any ideas?

https://discoverqatar.qatarairways.com/qa-en/transit-exclusive-doha-city-tour-2000

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:46 AM
Author: \'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\'\"\'

Doesn’t jjc live in Seattle

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:45 AM
Author: Jim_Kelly

the mountain lion?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:45 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

strangely pokey

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:45 AM
Author: Risten

Lol at going to her rescue after she bailed on him

It jumped on Isaac M. Sederbaum, putting its mouth around his head and shaking him. It released him and chased after the other cyclist, Sonja J. Brooks, who had started to run.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:45 AM
Author: Dai, non fa niente

cr dude was likely super fucked up

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:44 AM
Author: TRUMP TEAM SIX

this is why i love it here

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:44 AM
Author: ,..,......,...,......,.....,...,....

Is IMO gold actually tougher to achieve?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:44 AM
Author: Cohen the Galleria of Benefits

Trump said pussy hehe

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:44 AM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

haha wow holy shit

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:43 AM
Author: Cohen the Galleria of Benefits

Lol at this question. The mental gymnastics I've seen some people go through IRL is amazing. I appreciate my friend who said "I'm a selfish asshole and want tax breaks for 4-8 years"

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:43 AM
Author: problematic moniker

http://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/parenting/babies/unwanted-hundreds-of-babies-abandoned-in-drop-box-amid-wealthy-countrys-adoption-woes/news-story/38ce38698bdf89025b7a192c1b356d84

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:42 AM
Author: Dai, non fa niente



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:42 AM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette

https://www.redfin.com/CA/Topanga/611-Sky-Line-Trl-90290/home/6851679

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:42 AM
Author: ..............;...................

In fairness, the dude's head was already in the jaws of a mountain lion. So it's pretty crappy to say "well, if it were me, and my skull had been shaken by a big cat, I'd have...!"

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:42 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

Luckiest Generation

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:42 AM
Author: CharlesXII(CharlesXII)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:42 AM
Author: Dai, non fa niente

menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism, menstruation and capitalism,

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:41 AM
Author: .......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,

what a 180 lot

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:41 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:41 AM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

lol she is higher T than he is

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:41 AM
Author: ,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,..,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

Pretty much, except they didn’t build it. They inherited it from their parents. Their only contribution was imposing the toll (so they could mortgage it to pay themselves a dividend).

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:41 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

we know

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:41 AM
Author: prince never spins

guess so, but i honestly feel better. even, relaxed, calm. ill take it!

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:40 AM
Author: Ed Hendrick(bsc)


a 1br isn't 5k per month for nothing

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:40 AM
Author: US Embassy In Jerusalem, Under Budg, Ahead of Sked(*)


http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/newpix/2018/05/20/22/4C6C201500000578-5751241-image-a-26_1526853092358.jpg

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:40 AM
Author: problematic moniker

*i'm

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:40 AM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

I was in a serious car wreck (fell asleep at the wheel on the freeway and spun out across 3 lanes of traffic, barely missed getting flattened by a semi), all seemed to happen in a split second and I kind of blacked out. I sometimes wonder if there's some sort of multiverse shit where in another timeline, I died. This timeline seems pretty shitty, so maybe I was supposed to die.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:39 AM
Author: The Intersectionality of J. Cole\'s new album

For me it's the acoustic guitar

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:39 AM
Author: The Intersectionality of J. Cole\'s new album

Georgia Tech's online CS masters is 8K

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:38 AM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:37 AM
Author: Poasting in a Truly Histrionic Thread(the smallest things give me a great cockstand)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:36 AM
Author: don\'t run ihatecrime1@gmail.com mueller sees you(and icu)


seriously what the fuck

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:35 AM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

basically never the DTP-level seething rage
I get irritated fairly regularly, most often because of shitty drivers

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:35 AM
Author: From a Bloomington Bathhouse on the Hill(height bort first poaster)


It's pretty well-established that making a big deal out of suicide serves to glorify it to those that were already borderline suicidal

It sucks, but schools are doing the right thing in choosing to address student suicides as little as possible

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:34 AM
Author: .......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:34 AM
Author: .......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:33 AM
Author: ,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,

haha, wow, that's fucked up

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:33 AM
Author: typical lib pundit

Maybe she accidentally spilled her hot sauce in it and that's why she couldn't wear it

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:33 AM
Author: \'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'

?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:32 AM
Author: \'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'

https://cars.usnews.com/cars-trucks/rankings/subcompact-suvs

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:32 AM
Author: \'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'

?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:32 AM
Author: prince never spins

does it bother you?

i feel that anger is unnecessarily destroying my enjoyment of life. the more i can keep away anger, the better i feel. last couple of days i had an epiphany taht reduced my anger, and that was that i dont care if many people dont like me, and i suddenly feel better. i thought if i didnt care that people dont like me, it would be even worse, but turns out its freeing. i accept im unlikable, what can i do. and now i feel better. if you dont accept reality, you just become angrier and angrier. i dont care that im not superman or someone who everyone will like, so now i dont get angry that they dont like me. and i feel calmer.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:31 AM
Author: typical lib pundit

Go on...

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:31 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

Undergrad in Korea is in Korean. He wouldn’t have been able to do that.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:31 AM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette

Rhodes scholar has become really really devalued - just look at these people - they're not the Bill Clinton Chads of yore.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:30 AM
Author: gadotphile

she must have a bad sense of smell

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:30 AM
Author: ,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,

HOT TAKES OUT THE YING YANG

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:30 AM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette

Lol at driving some kind of HR chick vehicle

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:29 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

too bad for you

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:29 AM
Author: \'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"

?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:29 AM
Author: http://i.imgur.com/GzDww8M.jpg



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:29 AM
Author: \'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'

ty

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:29 AM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


LOL jjc.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:29 AM
Author: prince never spins

no, its not grand. its just you. you are life to you. i am just a person in your life, you are a person in my life. life doesnt exist. it only exists in your mind, and you are life. how can you be grand? you are just a person.



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:29 AM
Author: .......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,

it that would take a lifetime or two to repay, then burnt and imploded the bridges while the generation was midway crossing the bridge?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:28 AM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


Gangnam WGWAG Playboy here, sup

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:28 AM
Author: Buck \"The Club\" Paulette

I'd probably wait until I knew what city I'd be flying from before I booked the ticket.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:28 AM
Author: http://i.imgur.com/GzDww8M.jpg



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:28 AM
Author: gadotphile

with effortless wit

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:28 AM
Author: \'\' \" \'\' \'\' \" \'\'

I don't have kids so don't see the point in upping to that much space

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:28 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

Stop shitting up other peoples threads

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:27 AM
Author: http://i.imgur.com/GzDww8M.jpg



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:27 AM
Author: ,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,

sure

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:27 AM
Author: ,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:27 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

Wikipedia Search
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ &#51312;, &#44592;&#54840; (18 July 2012). "&#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#54620; &#53028;&#47112; &#47803; &#51452;&#45716; &#44400;(&#36557;)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
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^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
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^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:26 AM
Author: prince never spins

like.. scowl level anger?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:26 AM
Author: \'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"

Right, many of which can't pay for their loans and are fucked for life.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:26 AM
Author: ,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,,.,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

Even 30-35 is still very early in the game. I can't assign anyone a life/career grade until about age 50.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:26 AM
Author: ,,.,..,,.,.,.,.,.,.,..,,,,,,,,

that's pretty vague
a lot of people 'know' a lot of 70 year olds

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:26 AM
Author: .......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:26 AM
Author: ,..,......,...,......,.....,...,....

why?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:25 AM
Author: nyuug(Sucka FREE)


korean conscription masterman here, sup

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:25 AM
Author: Topher Mercer(Short Pride World Wide)


Still lives nearby, in law school whIle working full time, poasts nearly 16 hours per day on autoadmit.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:25 AM
Author: cannon

I get immense satisfaction out of HER having to do a sad clown routine

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:25 AM
Author: .........,,.,.,.,.,,,,,,.,.,.,.,.,.

Shit is horrible. Wouldn’t wish it on anyone

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:25 AM
Author: Fat Plodding Law Beaver(dracula who must show his cock)




(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:25 AM
Author: \'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"

Yes, it's theft all around. Schools steal from doctors, who will then steal from people. Health is exploited more than anything in this country and is considered a source of wealth and prestige rather than a profession that actually helps those afflicted by disease.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:25 AM
Author: ,..,.,..,\",..,.,..,\".,.,..,,\'

that was real?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:25 AM
Author: Duncan donuts



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:25 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

Wikipedia Search
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
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^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
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^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
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^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
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^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ &#51312;, &#44592;&#54840; (18 July 2012). "&#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#54620; &#53028;&#47112; &#47803; &#51452;&#45716; &#44400;(&#36557;)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
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^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
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^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
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^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
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^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
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^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
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^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ &#51312;, &#44592;&#54840; (18 July 2012). "&#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#54620; &#53028;&#47112; &#47803; &#51452;&#45716; &#44400;(&#36557;)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
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^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
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^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ &#51312;, &#44592;&#54840; (18 July 2012). "&#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#54620; &#53028;&#47112; &#47803; &#51452;&#45716; &#44400;(&#36557;)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
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^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
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^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
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^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
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^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
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^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
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^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
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^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
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^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
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^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
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^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
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^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
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^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
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^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter
Wikipedia Search
EditWatch this pageRead in another language
Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
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^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
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^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
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^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
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^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
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^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ &#51312;, &#44592;&#54840; (18 July 2012). "&#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#54620; &#53028;&#47112; &#47803; &#51452;&#45716; &#44400;(&#36557;)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:24 AM
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I'm attending a friend's wedding in LA in the last weekend of June. However, there is a chance that I may be moving out of my city before then, to take a new job. I'm thus reluctant to book a ticket now since I can't cancel after 24 hours.

XO experts, what should I do?




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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
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^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
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^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
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^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
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^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
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^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
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^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
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^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
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^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
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^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
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^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
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^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
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^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
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^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
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^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
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^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
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^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
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^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
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^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ &#51312;, &#44592;&#54840; (18 July 2012). "&#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#54620; &#53028;&#47112; &#47803; &#51452;&#45716; &#44400;(&#36557;)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
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^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
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^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
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^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ &#51312;, &#44592;&#54840; (18 July 2012). "&#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#54620; &#53028;&#47112; &#47803; &#51452;&#45716; &#44400;(&#36557;)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
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^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
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Exter

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:22 AM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

girl killed herself with pills in 7th grade
we were a tiny class, so even though I wasn't friends with her, it was still jarring. School didn't bring in temporary grief counselors or even say anything to parents.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:22 AM
Author: ,..,...,,,.,.;.,.,..,,.,.,.;.,..,.,.,;,.,.:,.,.,.,

wherever I go, there I am

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
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^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
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^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
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^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
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^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ &#51312;, &#44592;&#54840; (18 July 2012). "&#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#54620; &#53028;&#47112; &#47803; &#51452;&#45716; &#44400;(&#36557;)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
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^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
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^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
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^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
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^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
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^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
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^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

^ "&#48337;&#50669;&#51060;&#54665;&#50504;&#45236; - &#44060;&#50836;(&#52509;&#44292;)" [Military Service Implementation Guide - General Overview]. Military Manpower Organization (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ a b Lee, Namhee (2007). The Making of Minjung: Democracy and the Politics of Representation in South Korea. Cornell University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0801445663.
^ "S. Korea to expand women's role in military". Yonhap News Agency. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
^ "Constitution of the Republic of Korea" (PDF). 1987. p. 12. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
^ Kim, Jongcheol (2012). "Constitutional Law". Introduction to Korean Law. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 78. ISBN 3642316891.
^ a b "Military Service Act, Article 8". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "History". Military Manpower Administration. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 5". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 10-14". Korean Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Lent, Jesse (2016-04-01). "'Descendants Of The Sun' Star Song Joong Ki Discusses His Time In The South Korean Army". Korea Portal. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Article 18". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Military Service Act, Articles 26-43". Korea Legislation Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "Conscription 'Should Be Phased Out Slowly'". Chosun Ilbo. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Kim, Christine (2010-12-22). "Plan to cut compulsory military service scrapped". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ "&#51228;68&#51312;&#51032;11(&#50696;&#49696;&#12685;&#52404;&#50977;&#50836;&#50896;&#51032; &#52628;&#52380; &#46321;) [Article 68-11: Recommendation of arts and sports personnel, etc.]". &#48337;&#50669;&#48277; &#49884;&#54665;&#47161; [Military Service Act Implementation Rules]. South Korea: Ministry of Government Legislation. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. &#48277; &#51228;33&#51312;&#51032;7&#51228;1&#54637; &#51204;&#45800;&#50640;&#49436; "&#45824;&#53685;&#47161;&#47161;&#51004;&#47196; &#51221;&#54616;&#45716; &#50696;&#49696;·&#52404;&#50977; &#48516;&#50556;&#51032; &#53945;&#44592;&#47484; &#44032;&#51652; &#49324;&#46988;"&#51060;&#46976; &#45796;&#51020; &#44033; &#54840;&#51032; &#50612;&#45712; &#54616;&#45208;&#50640; &#54644;&#45817;&#54616;&#45716; &#49324;&#46988;&#51012; &#47568;&#54620;&#45796;. ... 4. &#50732;&#47548;&#54589;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 3&#50948; &#51060;&#49345;&#51004;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;) 5. &#50500;&#49884;&#50500;&#44221;&#44592;&#45824;&#54924;&#50640;&#49436; 1&#50948;&#47196; &#51077;&#49345;&#54620; &#49324;&#46988;(&#45800;&#52404;&#44221;&#44592;&#51333;&#47785;&#51032; &#44221;&#50864;&#50640;&#45716; &#49892;&#51228;&#47196; &#52636;&#51204;&#54620; &#49440;&#49688;&#47564; &#54644;&#45817;&#54620;&#45796;). [In Article 33, Paragraph 7, Subparagraph 2 of the Act, 'a person having special talents in arts and athletics fields, as defined by presidential order' refers to persons to whom are applicable any one of the provisions of the following subparagraphs. ... 4. A person who received a prize for ranked third or above at the Olympics (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated). 5. A person who received a prize for ranking first at the Asian Games (in the case of team events, only applicable to athletes who actually participated).]
^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
^ "Footballer to Be Spared Military Service Despite IOC Probe". Chosun Ilbo. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
^ "Medal instead of military service". The Hankyoreh. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
^ "Park Tae-hwan Enters Army Boot Camp". Chosun Ilbo. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
^ &#51312;, &#44592;&#54840; (18 July 2012). "&#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#54620; &#53028;&#47112; &#47803; &#51452;&#45716; &#44400;(&#36557;)!". Seoul Broadcasting System. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
^ "FAQs-Dual Citizens | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Korea. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
^ "South Korean singer Rain reports for military service". BBC News. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
^ Park, Eun-jee (16 January 2013). "Military service mischief a losing battle". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, In-kyung (21 June 2012). "Kim Moo Yul Involved in Military Scandal after Avoiding Duties". enewsWorld. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
^ Moon, Gwang-lip (25 June 2012). "Agent says Kim Moo-yul's family situation was 'nearly impossible'". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
^ Kim Jung-kyoon (June 30, 2017). "T.O.P admits to all charges at first hearing". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ "Big Bang's T.O.P pleads guilty to pot charges". The Jakarta Post. June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
^ Park Hyeong-taek (June 29, 2017). "[SC&#54788;&#51109;] &#53457;, &#45824;&#47560;&#52488; 4&#54924; &#55137;&#50672; &#49884;&#51064;…"&#44277;&#49548;&#49324;&#49892; &#47784;&#46160; &#51064;&#51221;"" [[SC scene] Top, smoking four po ... "All the facts of the charges"]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). Retrieved July 19, 2017.
^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
^ "(LEAD) BIGBANG's T.O.P. gets suspended sentence for marijuana use". Yonhap News Agency. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P to lose police post after drug conviction". Yonhap News Agency. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "&#53457;, &#51032;&#44221; &#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448; '&#51116;&#48373;&#47924; &#49900;&#49324;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#54032;&#51221;'" [Top, disqualification of state of rehabilitation]. Starin E-Daily (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ "BigBang rapper T.O.P cannot continue serving military duty as a policeman". Starits Times. July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
^ Lee Young-jae (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#55137;&#50672;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51032;&#44221;&#50640;&#49436; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924; &#50836;&#50896; &#46096;&#45796;". Korea JoongAng Daily (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ "&#47532;&#50864;&#50640;&#49436;&#46020; &#46496;&#50724;&#47480; &#52629;&#44396;&#45824;&#54364;&#54016; '&#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;'".
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^ "&#46308;&#52041;&#45216;&#52041; &#48337;&#50669;&#53945;&#47168;&#44592;&#51456; '&#54805;&#54217;&#49457;' &#45436;&#46976;…&#48337;&#47924;&#52397; '&#45572;&#51201;&#51216;&#49688;&#51228;' &#52628;&#51652;" (in Korean). Yonhap News Agency. September 30, 2016.
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^ "Star Swimmer Says Army Boot Camp Helped Him Grow". Chosun Ilbo. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "Hyeon Chung Participates In Korean Military Training - ATP World Tour - Tennis - ATP World Tour - Tennis".
^ &#44277;&#47924;&#50896;&#48372;&#49688;&#44508;&#51221; '&#48324;&#54364; 13' &#44400;&#51064;&#51032; &#48393;&#44553;&#54364;(&#51228;5&#51312; &#48143; &#48324;&#54364; 1 &#44288;&#47144;) . Korea Ministry of Government Legislation (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
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^ "[&#48372;&#46020;&#51088;&#47308;] &#50696;&#49328; &#50630;&#45796;&#45912; &#44397;&#48169;&#48512;, &#49324;&#44288;&#49373;&#46020;&#50640;&#44172;&#45716; &#44256;&#44032; &#50808;&#44397;&#48652;&#47004;&#46300; &#50868;&#46041;&#54868; &#51648;&#44553;". Retrieved 4 August 2012.[dead link]
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^ Seo, Ji-eun "Steve Yoo isn’t coming back to Korea" Archived 6 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Joongang Daily. 20 October 2011. retrieved 2011-11-08
^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
^ (in Korean) "Song Seung-heon discharged from the army"Yahoo News Korea, 2006-11-18. Archived 14 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
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^ "KBS, MBC release list of 36 banned entertainers" Dong-A Ilbo. 28 September 2011. 2011-10-14
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^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
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^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
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^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
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^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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^ (in Korean) "&#52572;&#51648;&#50864;, '&#49849;&#54732;&#51060;&#50640;&#44172; &#47568; &#44152;&#50612;&#48380;&#44620;?"[permanent dead link] SSTV. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-06
^ "Song Seung-heon, Jang Hyeok Discharged from Military" HanCinema. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
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^ "Rapper Gets Suspended Jail Term for Draft Dodging" Chosun Ilbo. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-14
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^ Sunwoo, Carla (22 June 2012). "Actor Kim Moo-yul was poor enough to dodge military service". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
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^ "High-Paid Actor Exempted from Draft for Poverty". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06.
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^ Sunwoo, Carla (10 July 2012). "Kim Moo-yul kicked off movie set". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 July 2012). "Choi Daniel to replace Kim Moo-yul". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
^ Lee, Hye-ji (5 October 2012). "Kim Moo-yeol to Enter Army, Cleaning out Exemption Rumors". 10Asia. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
^ Sunwoo, Carla (11 October 2011). "Kim Moo-yul enlists after rumors". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P confirms military enlistment date". Yibada. November 22, 2016.
^ "The Full Story Behind T.O.P's Drug Scandal, And The Mysterious Trainee Woman". June 2, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Jun, R. "BIGBANG's T.O.P To Be Dismissed From Duty For Duration of Prosecution". Soompi. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
^ "Medical expert comments on T.O.P's benzodiazepine overdose | allkpop.com". allkpop. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
^ "BIGBANG's T.O.P hospitalized for drug overdose". YonhapNews. June 6, 2017. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
^ "K-pop superstar T.O.P. in intensive care after overdose". BBC. June 8, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
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^ Riddhiman Mukhopadhyay (July 20, 2017). "Rapper T.O.P sentenced at final trial: Apologizes to fans for his actions". International Business Times. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
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^ "&#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#51116;&#48373;&#47924;&#49900;&#49324;&#50640;&#49436; &#48512;&#51201;&#54633; &#44208;&#47200;… &#51032;&#44221;&#49888;&#48516; &#48149;&#53448;" [Big Bang tower is inadequate in re-examination ... Deprivation of state]. Sports Chosun (in Korean). July 31, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
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^ Kim Ji-heon (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488;' &#48709;&#48197; &#53457;, &#50724;&#45720; &#51032;&#44221; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#44540;&#47924;". Yonhap News Agency (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Kim Yoo-jin (August 28, 2017). "'&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#45436;&#46976;' &#53457;, &#48372;&#52649;&#50669; &#53685;&#48372;&#48155;&#44256; &#50724;&#45720; &#51204;&#50669;…&#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196; &#51204;&#54872;". Herald Economy (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ Hae Kyung Heon (August 28, 2017). "&#45824;&#47560;&#52488; &#51665;&#50976;&#54032;&#44208; &#53457; &#44208;&#44397; &#49324;&#54924;&#48373;&#47924;&#50836;&#50896;&#51004;&#47196;, &#45572;&#47532;&#44988; &#48152;&#51025; '&#45257;&#47021;'". Sports Khan (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-08-29.
^ "Country report and updates: Korea, South - War Resisters' International". www.wri-irg.org.
Exter

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:22 AM
Author: \'\'\'\'\'\'\'\"\'\"

She died

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:21 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:21 AM
Author: .......,,..,.,,.,.,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,,.,.,.,.,.,,,,

keep catching myself giving looks of palpable disgust at them

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:21 AM
Author: bowlcut autist

Knew a guy named Mitch- prole white bro with a cute lil sis in my grade. He ran in our stoner groups but wasn't known to be particularly disturbed. Around his sophmore year he took himself out with a shotgun. In hindsight the idea of a 14-15 yo doing this is much more disturbing than it seemed at the time.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:20 AM
Author: ant shuffling through byzantine sand conduits

currently in med school
at some point, he became a jesus freak who posts on social media about "how much the Lord has blessed" him. He also almost exclusively posts pics with other guys in his church group or whatever, being like "I love these men of God!" I think he was always a closeted gay

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:20 AM
Author: David Fleischman at Ortho Mattress(Dead ringer for Family Guy's Mort Goldman minus a hundred pounds)


(azn)

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:19 AM
Author: The Intersectionality of J. Cole\'s new album

So it's confirmed to be real?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:19 AM
Author: gadotphile

k

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:19 AM
Author: typical lib pundit

https://twitter.com/chiraqtrendin/status/998017917953470464

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:19 AM
Author: bowlcut autist



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:19 AM
Author: CharlesXII(CharlesXII)


Most of XO is early-to-mid 30s by now. I'm 27 and still one of the younger posters it seems.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

Show Thread
Date: May 21st, 2018 12:19 AM
Author: David Fleischman at Ortho Mattress(Dead ringer for Family Guy's Mort Goldman minus a hundred pounds)


just started playing it. quitting work tomorrow to go live in a fantasy farmtown with a stable economy

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:19 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:19 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:18 AM
Author: da stugots



(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:18 AM
Author: ,..,.,..,\",..,.,..,\".,.,..,,\'

that was cowardly shit. if a mountain lion attacks, you have to fight. and you have to go to her rescue.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:18 AM
Author: ,..,...,,,.,.;.,.,..,,.,.,.;.,..,.,.,;,.,.:,.,.,.,

Plays in the NFL

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:18 AM
Author: ,.,.,.,..,.,.,:,,:,,.,:::,.,,.,:.,,.:.,:.,:.::,.

Not quite, broseph.

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:18 AM
Author: extremely online guy

if anything too many people are going to college

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:18 AM
Author: \'\'\'\"\'\'\'\"\'\'\'\'\"\"

Who paid for your NYU education? Why did you decide to go there?

(http://templocation/thread.php?thread_id=123)

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Date: May 21st, 2018 12:18 AM
Author: \'\'\"\'\"\'\'\"

Wikipedia Search
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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.[12]

South Korea currently has among the longest military service periods in the world, ranked behind Israel, Singapore, and North Korea.[citation needed] In 2010, there was growing public pressure to either shorten the length of conscription or to switch to voluntary military service, and calls from experts for a gradual phasing out of conscription rather than complete abolition.[13] However, in December 2010, after taking into consideration of the 2010 ROKS Cheonan sinking and Bombardment of Yeonpyeong incidents, the South Korean government said it would not reduce service periods.[14]

Exemptions for Olympic medalists Edit
Current conscription regulations stipulate that athletes who win medals in the Olympic Games or gold medals in the Asian Games are granted exemptions from military service and are placed in Grade 4.[15] They are required to do four weeks of basic military training and engage in sports field for 34 months. After that, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster, and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for six years. In practice, after athletes finish their four weeks of basic military training, they are able to continue their own sports career during the 34 months of duty.[16]

Notable athletes who have been granted exemptions from military service are the bronze medal-winning football team at the 2012 Summer Olympics,[17][18] 2008 Olympic gold medalists badminton player Lee Yong-dae[19] and swimmer Park Tae-hwan[20][21] and 2014 Asian Games gold medalist tennis player Hyeon Chung.[22]

Compensation Edit

The following data is from 'Regulation on Public Servant Compensation', implemented on 1 January 2017.[23] Exchange rate as of 2 May 2018 (&#8361;1077 to $1.00USD)

Private (&#51060;&#46321;&#48337;) Private first class (&#51068;&#46321;&#48337;) Corporal (&#49345;&#46321;&#48337;) Sergeant (&#48337;&#51109;)
&#8361;163,000
$151.35 (approx) per month &#8361;176,400
$163.79 (approx) per month &#8361;195,000
$181.06 (approx) per month &#8361;216,000
$200.56 (approx) per month
Equipment Edit

The Ministry of National Defense has revealed that it has failed to provide sneakers to 7,411 recruits who joined the military from 22 May to 4 June 2012, after the budget was insufficient for need. The Defense ministry originally projected the cost of each pair of sneakers to be 11,000 KRW. However, the actual cost turned out to be 15,000 KRW.[24]

The office of National Assembly member Kim Kwang-jin of Democratic United Party revealed that cadets in Korea Military Academy were provided with sneakers worth 60,000 KRW and tennis shoes. Cadets in Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon were provided with sneakers worth 64,250 KRW, in addition to running shoes and soccer shoes.[25]

Dual citizens Edit

For dual citizens, or those with multiple citizenships, male South Koreans must choose their citizenship by the time they turn 18, before March 31 of that year. If these males choose to revoke their South Korean citizenship, they will not be required to complete their mandatory military service. However, if they fail to choose their citizenship by their 18th year, they will be subjected to fulfill their mandatory military service.[26] If males choose to renounce their citizenship by their 18th year, they are ineligible to gain a Korean work visa (F series) until after they turn 40 years of age. It may still be possible to gain an E series visa.

Controversies Edit

The South Korean public is sensitive towards the country's mandatory military service, but also has a low tolerance towards those who attempt to dodge or receive special treatment, especially after scandals of wealthy families caught trying to avoid their national duty. Those found or accused of draft dodging and negligence of duty often face harsh penalties and public backlash. According to Ha Jae-keun, a South Korean pop columnist, "The mood against draft-dodgers and negligence of duty is so hostile that nowadays entertainers feel it's better to get it over and done with".[27][28]

Steve Yoo Edit
In 2002, right before Korean American pop singer Steve Yoo was due to be drafted for his military service, he gave up his Korean nationality and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was born in Seoul and migrated to the United States at the age of 13. The South Korean government considered it an act of desertion and deported him, banning him from entering the country permanently.[29]

Song Seung-heon Edit
In late 2004, it was revealed that actor Song Seung-heon had avoided his draft by taking medication to fail the military physical examination. Song had previously been exempted by claiming to have severe diabetes and high blood pressure, but that was found by the South Korean government to be false.[30] Amidst press coverage and public outcry, Song publicly apologized and agreed to immediately serve his two-year term in the military. Song was discharged on 15 November 2006 with the rank of Corporal.[31][32]

MC Mong Edit
On 11 April 2011, rapper MC Mong was cleared of intentionally pulling out healthy teeth to be exempted from military duty but was sentenced to a suspended jail term of 6 months, probation for one year, and 120 hours of community service, for deliberately delaying enlistment on false grounds.[33] The court acknowledged that there was a delay in his military enlistment; however, they were unable to determine whether he was guilty of extracting teeth for the purpose of avoiding his military draft. In September 2011, it was reported that Mong has been banned by Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) and Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) from appearing in its TV shows, for draft dodging.[34]

Kim Mu-yeol Edit
In June 2012 Kim Mu-yeol came under growing public criticism over allegations he dodged his compulsory military service. In a report released by the Korean Board of Audit and Inspection (BAI), Kim was deemed fit to serve in active duty as a level two recruit after a March 2001 physical examination. However, throughout 2007 to 2009, Kim was granted postponement on the grounds that he was taking civil service examinations or had been admitted to a work training facility, neither of which took place. During this time he reportedly earned approximately &#8361;300 million from films, musicals and television work. In December 2009, he received his final notice for enlistment, having used up the 730 days allowed for postponement. He submitted a request to change his military status in January 2010 because of a knee injury, which was rejected. Finally, a valid exemption was granted on the grounds that he was a "low-income individual" and the sole provider for his family. BAI's contention was that Kim's income is substantially higher than the standard for disqualification due to poverty; thus, the Military Manpower Administration was negligent in their duties by granting the exemption.[35][36][37]

Kim's agency Prain TPC defended him, stating that Kim had been supporting his family by working as a security guard, construction worker and at a mobile phone factory since his late teens. When his father collapsed from a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with cancer in 2008, the treatments incurred a lot of debt for the family. Their worsening financial condition caused them to become totally dependent on Kim, resulting in his said filing for an exemption in 2010.[38] Given the publicity, a reinvestigation into the case was launched and Kim was asked by the production company to leave the film 11 A.M. (he was replaced by Choi Daniel).[39][40] On 4 October 2012, Kim released a statement that though there was no wrongdoing on his part, he had decided to voluntarily enter the army "to recover his honor damaged by the rumors."[41][42]

T.O.P Edit
T.O.P began his two-year mandatory military service on February 9, 2017 as a conscripted police officer, where he was set to be discharged on November 8, 2018 after completing the requirements.[43] However, it was announced in June that he would be prosecuted without detention for use of marijuana.[44] He was subsequently transferred to a different police division to await notice of prosecution, and was suspended from police duty pending verdict on his case.[45] A few days after the announcement, T.O.P was found unconscious in police barracks due to a suspected anti-anxiety medicine overdose of prescribed benzodiazepine,[46] and was hospitalized.[47] On June 8, T.O.P's mother confirmed that her son had opened his eyes and was recovering.[48]

On June 29, T.O.P faced his first trial for the marijuana usage charges at the Seoul Central District Court.[49] He pleaded guilty to the charges against him and admitted that he did smoke marijuana on two out of the four instances.[50] T.O.P received two years of probation, with a possibility of ten months' jail time if he violates any terms.[51] At the second court hearing the following month, T.O.P was sentenced to 10 months in prison suspended for two years for illegal marijuana use.[52] He acknowledged all guilty charges. After undergoing a disciplinary review by the police to decide if T.O.P could return as a conscripted policeman or will complete his service as a public service officer,[53] the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency reviewed T.O.P's current condition and decided T.O.P is unfit to resume service in his previous position.[54][55] A request was made to Army headquarters for a new position for T.O.P to determine either to serve as a public service worker of a full-time reserve soldier to complete his mandatory service.[56][57] T.O.P was eventually assigned reservist status by the Ministry of National Defense and transferred from police department.[58] He will complete his mandatory service as a public service worker.[59] The time T.O.P had been dismissed from duty during his prosecution will not count towards his total service.[60][61]

Conscientious objection Edit

The right to conscientious objection is not recognised in South Korea.[62] Usually, over 400 people are imprisoned at any one time for refusing military service, for political or religious reasons. This is contrary to international human rights standards and the government of Korea have been repeatedly criticised for not allowing those whose conscience prevents them from joining the military to undertake some kind of substitute service, rather than imprisoning them.

See also Edit

Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Republic of Korea Army
Republic of Korea Marine Corps
Republic of Korea Navy
Republic of Korea Air Force
References Edit

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Conscription in South Korea
Conscription in South Korea has existed since 1957 and requires male citizens between the ages of 18 and 35 to perform about two years of compulsory military service.[1][2] Women are not required to perform military service, but may voluntarily enlist.[3]

Establishment Edit

The basis for military conscription in South Korea is the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, which was promulgated on July 17, 1948. The constitution states in Article 39, "All citizens shall have the duty of national defense under the conditions as prescribed by Act."[4][5] The Military Service Act of 1949, which was implemented in 1957, specified that compulsory military service is required for men ages 18 or older.[6][2] Conscription is managed by the Military Manpower Administration, which was created in 1948.[7]

Requirements Edit

Enlistment and physical exam Edit
By law, when a Korean man turns 18 years old, he is enlisted for "first citizen service," meaning he is liable for military duty, but is not yet required to serve.[6][8] When he turns 19 years old (or, in some instances, 20 years old), he is required to undergo a physical exam to determine whether he is suitable for military service. The table below shows the physical exam's possible grades and their outcomes, according to the Military Service Act.[9]

Grade Description Outcome
1, 2, 3, 4 "Those whose physical and psychological constitution is healthy enough to perform active or supplemental service." "To be enlisted for active duty service, supplemental service or the second citizen service, based on their qualifications, such as educational background and age."
5 "Those incapable of entering active or supplemental service, but capable of entering the second citizen service." "To be enlisted for the second citizen service."
6 "Those incapable of performing military service due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To be exempted from military service."
7 "Those unable to be graded...due to any disease or mental or physical incompetence." "To undergo a follow-up physical examination" within two years.
Service types and length Edit
The length of compulsory military service in South Korea varies based on military branch.[10] Active duty soldiers serve 21 months in the Army or Marine Corps, 23 months in the Navy, and 24 months in the Air Force.[11] After conscripts finish their military service, they are automatically placed on the reserve roster and are obligated to attend a few days of annual military training for 6 years.[citation needed]

Non-active duty personnel, or "supplemental service" personnel serve for various lengths: 24 months for social work personnel or international cooperation service personnel; 34 months for arts and sports personnel or industrial technical personnel; and 36 months for public health doctors,